Timeline

Timeline

1776-1787 The Jummas wage a guerrilla war against British aggression. (Some writers tend to refer to it as “Chakma revolt”. A through study on the subject suggests that it was neither a revolt, nor was it fought by Chakmas alone. For all practical purposes, it was a popular resistance in which the Jummas – men and women – fought to maintain independence and sovereignty of Carpas Mahal as the CHT was once called.)
1787
Feb.
A treaty of peace signed between the Jummas and the British at FortWilliam in Kolkata ends hostility.
1860: The British formally annexes the CHT; colonial rule begins.
1900: The British enacts the Chittagong Hill Tracts Regulation, Act 1 of 1900, also known as CHT manual.
1947: Decolonization of Indian subcontinent takes place and two states – India and Pakistan – emerge on the basis of two nation theory. Without consultation with the Jumma people, the British awards the Chittagong Hill Tracts, with its more than 98 per cent non-Muslim population, to Pakistan. This act of the British also violates the very theory on the basis of which India was partitioned. CHT now forms a part of the East Pakistan.
1960 – 63: The government of Pakistan constructs a dam under Kaptai Hydro Electric Project with far reaching consequences on the socio-economic and political life of the Jumma people. The immediate effect of the dam is that it inundates 54 thousand acres of farm land and evicts 100,000 people from their homesteads.
1971 The liberation war of Bangladesh begins. After a nine-month long bloody war the East Pakistan finally secedes from West Pakistan and a new state Bangladesh comes into being. The CHT now becomes a part of Bangladesh.
1972
February
A delegation of Jumma leaders submits a memorandum to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, first Prime Minister of independent Bangladesh. The PM refuses to accept the memo, throws it on the ground and advises them to forget their Jumma identity and become Bengali.
The Jana Samhati Samiti, a political platform for the nationalist Jumma youths, is formed to ventilate the grievances of the Jumma people.
1975 Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is killed in a military coup d’ tat and his party Awami League is thrown out of power. The Jana Samhati Samiti goes underground following a ban.
1976 The government of Ziaur Rahman establishes Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board (CHTDB). Militarization of the CHT begins in full swing.
The JSS launches guerrilla war.
1979 Transplantation of 400,000 illegal Bengali settlers under state patronization begins.
1980 Kalampati massacre takes place in Kawkhali, Rangamati. An estimated 300 Jummas die. A dozen more massacres and genocides follow.
1982 The Jana Samhati Samiti splits. The Badi (short) faction led by Bhabatosh Dewan and Priti Kumar Chakma opposes the idea of protracted guerrilla war as espoused by Lamba (Long) faction led by Manobendra Narayan Larma.
1983 The Badi faction attacks the Head Quarters of its opponent and kills M. N. Larma along with his eight lieutenants. A brutal civil war follows.
1985 The Badi faction concedes defeat and surrenders to the government of Bangladesh.
1988
March 8
Jumma female students of ChittagongUniversity forms Hill Women’s Federation.
1989
20 May
Jumma students form the Chittagong Hill Tracts Hill Students Council in Dhaka. The following morning the Jumma students bring out a silent procession on the streets of Dhaka to protest against Longudu massacre, which took place on 4 May. This marks the beginning of a popular democratic resistance to state repression in CHT.The International Commission on the Chittagong Hill Tracts is established.
1990: The Chittagong Hill Tracts Commission visits Tripura and the CHT.
1991: The Chittagong Hill Tracts Commission brings out a report titled “Life is not Ours: Land and Human Rights in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh”.
1992: The horrible Logang massacre takes place in a border hamlet in Panchari under Khagrachari district inviting national and international condemnation.Progressive Bengali intellectuals, writers, lawyers, journalists and human and civil rights activists form the “Parbattyo Chattagram Maulik Odhikar Sangrakkan Committee” (Chittagong Hill Tracts Fundamental Rights Protection Committee) to support the cause of the Jumma people.The JSS declares unilateral ceasefire on August 1 and expresses its willingness to find a negotiated settlement to the CHT problems. On 5 November dialogue between JSS and the government begins.Democratic movement spearheaded by Hill Students Council spreads throughout CHT. At its 3rd founding anniversary programme held in Rangamati on 20 May, the HSC brings to the fore the CHT autonomy demand.
1993
17 Nov.
The Naniachar massacre takes place in Rangamati. 36 Jummas die.
1995 The army creates Mukhosh Bahini or Masked Force with members drawn from drug addicts, thugs and other anti-social elements to counter the democratic upsurge of the Jumma people.
1996
12 June.
Lieutenant Ferdous abducts Hill Women’s Federation leader Ms Kalpana Chakma from her home in New Lallyaghona village in Rangamati district.The Awami League comes to power through an internationally accepted free and fair election and picks up the dialogue process where the BNP left off.
1997
Dec.2
The Awami League government and the JSS sign Chittagong Hill Tracts Treaty. The popular Jumma organisations such as Hill Students Council, Hill Women’s Federation and Hill People’s Council reject the treaty on the ground that it has failed to address the main demands of the Jumma people.On 10 March, the three organisations put forward the demand of Full Autonomy for the first time.
1998
Feb. 10
Surrender of the members the Jana Samhati Samiti and its armed wing, the Shanti Bahini, begins at Khagrachari stadium amidst protest by activists of Hill Peoples Council, Hill Students Council and Hill Women’s Federation across the CHT. Inside the stadium members of HSC and HWF display black flags and banners as a mark of denunciation of the surrender and the accord.From 25 – 26 Dec. leading members of the Hill Students Council, Hill Peoples Council and Hill Women’s Federation meet in a conference in Dhaka and forms a new party – United Peoples Democratic Front (UPDF) – to carry on the struggle for the right of self determination of the Jumma people.Political repression of the members of the UPDF and its front organisations intensifies for voicing criticism to the CHT accord.Government nominates top JSS leaders as chairman and members of the Regional Council (RC) constituted as per the CHT accord.
1999 Police open fire on crowds of UPDF supporters in Khagrachari killing two – Pratul Chakma and Suro Moni Chakma.Army and settlers attack Jumma people in Babuchara killing three Jummas and a Bengali.Police crack down on the members and supporters of the UPDF who were trying to assemble in Chittagong to observe the first founding anniversary of the Party. 45 persons are arrested and put to jail.
2000 UPDF renews its call for dialogue with JSS. Under intense pressure from all sections of the Jumma people and their well wishers from home and abroad, the JSS finds its way to the negotiating table. UPDF pledges full support to the JSS endeavour to have the Accord fully implemented in return for cessation of armed offensive against its members and supporters. JSS rejects the offer.
2001 In February, the much publicised abduction of three foreign engineers takes place in Rangamati. The hostage drama ends after a month.On 25 June settlers burn down 277 houses belonging to Marma community in 7 villages in Ramgarh under Khagrachari district. The attack leaves more then hundred Jummas wounded and thousands homeless.UPDF takes part in the parliamentary elections held in October 1. UPDF chief Prasit Bikash Khisha contests from Rangamati and Khagrachari constituencies. In the run up to the election five UPDF members and supporters are killed in the hands of the JSS, which called for “boycott and resist”.
2002 On 10 October, the Bengali settlers set fire to 11 Jumma houses in the village of Augyojai Karbari Para, 20 kilometers from Bandarban district headquarters. The incident occurs after the alleged murder of a Bengali settler in nearby village of Rajvilla. Houses are looted and ransacked and 40 villagers including women, children and aging persons are tortured. Allegations of abuse of women are also reported.Military operations and JSS attacks on UPDF members continue unabated.
2003 Army and settlers carry out joint attack on several Jumma villages in Mahalchari of Khagrachari district killing two Jummas, burning down 500 houses and raping ten women. Buddhist temples are ransacked, statues of the Lord Buddha broken and monks harassed.
2004 Hill Watch Human Rights Forum publishes a report titled “Cruel Games With Peoples’ Human Rights” on JSS atrocities in Lakshmichari and some other places in Khagrachari and Rangamati districts.
 
2006 UPDF and JSS hold formal talks and agree to maintain peace. However, JSS violates the agreement and resumes armed attacks on UPDF.JSS splits into two factions, one led by Santu Larma and the other by Rupayon Dewan.UPDF convenes its first national congress in Dhaka.
 
2007 A state of emergency is declared in the country. Military-backed Fakruddin Ahmend’s interim government assumes power. UPDF puts up resistance to pervasive land grabbing incidents in the CHT.
 
2008 20 April: Bengali settlers backed by Bangladesh army attack seven Jumma villages in Sajek of Rangamati district, burning down a total of 76 houses.UPDF takes part in the 9th parliamentary elections held in December.
 
2009 Awami League forms government after winning a landslide victory in the elections.
 
2010 Army and Bengali settlers carry out a joint attack on Jumma people, killing four persons and burning down hundreds of houses in several villages in Sajek of Rangamati district.In another attack, Bengali settlers set fire to a number of houses in Jumma-inhabited areas in Khagrachari district town.
 
2011 Bengali settlers burn down several Jumma houses in a communal attack in Longudu, Rangamti district.Attacks on Jummas in Manikchari, Guimara and Ramgarh in Khagrachari district by Bengali settlers leave several people wounded and five villages burnt.The government passes the 15th amendment to the constitution, which identifies the citizens of Bangladesh including indigenous ethnic nationalities as Bengali. This sets off massive protests across the CHT. UPDF enforces road blocks and forms the longest ever human chain in the CHT in protest against the amendment. An estimated one hundred thousand people take part in this programme.
 
2012 A communal riot in Rangamati town leaves dozens of Jumma people wounded and many of their shops and businesses damaged.
 
2013 January 25
Bengali settlers attack Horidhan Marma Para and Hemongo Karbari Para, about 6 miles north-east of Matiranga Upazila town, setting fire to a dozen of Jumma houses.June 18: About 200 Bengali settlers from Bandorchara near Gomati bazaar mounted an attack on Takar Moni Para, a Tripura neighborhood in Matiranga Upazila.

August 03
The illegal Bengali settlers attack six Jumma villages in Taindong under Matiranga Upazila in Khagrachari district, wounding over a dozen people and burning down 34 houses, one Buddhist temple and one shop.

 
2014 January
UPDF takes part in 10th parliamentary elections.

June 10
Border Guard Bangladesh attacks Jumma villagers in Jatna Kumar Karbari Para and Shashi Mohan Karbari Para in Dighinala and drives out 21 families from their homes.

December 16
Settlers burn down 54 houses and 3 shops belonging to Jumma villagers in an organized attack in Bogachari under Naniachar Upazila in Rangmati district.

 
2015 Political repression of the UPDF and its supporters intensifies, with at least 143 of its members and supporters arrested in the year.

January 10 – 11
Clashes erupt in Rangamati town between the Bengali settlers and those enforcing a road blockade demanding a hold on the operation of Rangamati Medical College. The settlers cause damage to Jumma-owned businesses including Shevron clinic and Telecom Customer Care. They also make attempts to attack Jumma neighbourhoods in the town including Tribal Adam and Banarupa. Several persons are injured. Government imposes section 144.The next day, January 11, fresh clashes break out at Banarupa bazaar as the Deputy Commissioner holds a law and order meeting at his office. The clashes spread to other parts of the town and the settlers vandalize Jumma-owned shops at Ananda Vihara area at Tabalchari. Night time curfew is clamped to bring the situation under control.

January 22
The government of Bangladesh (home ministry) issues a 11-point directive on the Chittagong Hill Tracts, putting new restrictions on foreigners wishing to visit the area. The directive also makes mandatory the presence of a government official and army or BGB personnel during any meetings between a foreigner and local Jumma people in the CHT, and requests the Chittagong Hill Tracts International Commission to delete the word ‘Commission’ from its name. The directive is issued following a meeting on January 07, 2015 at the home ministry’s conference room with deputy minister for home affairs, Assaduzzaman Khan, in the chair.

March 15
Army and police attack a foot march organized by Dighinala Land Protection Committee demanding rehabilitation of the evicted 21 Jumma families, scores are injured and several arrested including women.

April 12
A Boisabi festival rally is cracked down in Khagrachari town in April.

October 17
Clashes break out on Rangamati College campus between JSS-backed students and activists of the Bangladesh Chattra League, the student wing of the ruling Awami League. The Bengali settlers join with the Chattra League and beat up a government employee named Apu Talukder in an attempt to turn it into a communal riot. Apu is seriously injured.

November 14
Five Jummas including three women are injured in a settler attack on a passenger launch bound for Marishya. The attack takes place at Digor Mukh area under Amtoli Union in Baghaichari Upazila, Rangamati district.

 

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